Managing work-life boundaries in the age of technology
Technology has blurred the line between work and non-work life. Communication and informational technologies like laptops, tablets, and smartphones enable workers to stay connected regardless of physical location and time of day (Kossek, 2016). Managing the boundaries between the work and home domain is not a new issue (Nippert-Eng, 2008), yet the increasing technological embeddedness in our everyday lives increases the complexity and relevance of these boundaries for both organizations and employees.
Communication technology can in many cases give opportunities for more flexibility, autonomy, and control. Nevertheless, it might also exert a pressure on employees, breeding an always available culture in organizations (Kossek, 2016).Leaders and managers set examples through their own behavior, which signal what is expected from the employees. Leaders who reply to and send emails during odd hours might contribute to the establishment of organizational norms that revolve around being available after hour and during off days. However, whether or not this becomes a problem is dependent on individual differences, perceived control over boundaries and companies availability policy. This review will take a closer look at the different factors that influence the management of work-life boundaries and how technology influences this relationship.
Bruk av smileys og emoticons i arbeidssammenheng
Utviklingen av teknologien i dagens digitale samfunn gjør det enklere for oss å få tak i hverandre uansett hvor vi befinner oss og uansett tid (Jacobsen og Thorsvik, 2007). Det er mange fordeler knyttet til denne utviklingen, men med tanke på kommunikasjon finner vi også noen utfordringer. Et av områdene hvor dette demonstreres tydelig er i bruken av email, som også er den mest utbredte kommunikasjonsverktøyet i moderne organisasjoner (Erlien, 2006). I dette elektroniske mediet ser man at utfordringer oppstår for eksempel gjennom tapet av viktige visuelle signaler, som kroppsspråk og ansiktsuttrykk (Jacobsen og Thorsvik, 2007). Ved at dette faller bort står man på bar bakke for å tolke budskapet i en melding, og det kan derfor være at flere benytter seg av emoticons og smileys (Lai, 2014). Disse uttrykksikonene blir ofte bruk for å kunne gi et klarere bilde av følelser og budskap når man kommuniserer gjennom for eksempel email.Med dette sagt vil denne artikkelen ta for seg hvorfor vi bruker uttrykksikonerog hvordan disse påvirker menneskers persepsjon av andre.
I am a good person, I promise
The electronic medium of e-mails has, due to a wide array of favourable qualities such as efficiency and accessibility, become an important platform for communication in all aspects of everyday life. We use e-mail to connect with co-workers, clients, educational faculty and students, customer service, advertising, banking, telephone services, and even social purposes such as staying in touch with friends or coordinating that yearly meeting with the kids soccer team. It has become ingrained as a central part of modern society, and is rapidly replacing as well as complementing other forms of communication, such as face-to-face meetings and the postage of snail-mail (a term coined as a witty counterpart to the much quicker e-mail). Despite this omnipresence, the finer nuances of the e-mail system remain unchartered territory for most of us. What choices do we make when we switch from other communication channels to e-mail? How do we convey our messages, and what do we expect in return? How do we relate to the recipient? What is deemed appropriate for various kinds of correspondence? The psychology behind e-mail constructions make for a huge topic, and given the dynamism of internet and technologic communication, our relations to e-mails are likely to change over time rather than standing still and wait for elucidation. Nonetheless, the following text will explore one specific aspect of e-mail communication that remains at the core of much correspondence the attempt to gain something from the other party. Given the impact presentation and formulation has on the outcome of such interaction, it is certainly worth being aware of how both the medium, the wording and the implicit attitudes communicated affect the receivers attitude to a specific request.
Considerations for the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on work
This short overview of automation at work has been motivated by a desire to raise awareness of some challenges to automation and what decision making have to guide against. Organisations can use multiple theories and perspectives to guide data interpretation and encourage re-assessment of algorithms in ways that does not perpetuate bias. The future skills and competencies needed at work involve higher emphasis on social intelligence and creativity. The future worker is more likely to become a partner of automated systems rather than a competitor to automated systems.